1. Mary Everard
- George Goring+
- Dorothy Goring
George Goring of Ovingdean, Sussex
- Born: After 1522
- Marriage (1): Mary Everard before 1560
- Died: 28 Mar 1594
Family and Education
b. aft. 152, 2nd s. of Sir William Goring † of Burton by Elizabeth, da. and coh. of John Covert of Slaugham. educ. ?M. Temple. m. bef. 1560, Mary, da. and coh. of William Everard, wid. of Richard Bellingham, 2s. inc. George Goring II . 2da.1
J.p. Suss. from c.1559; commr. recusancy, grain; capt. musters; sheriff, Surr. and Suss. 1578-9; receiver-gen. ct. of wards for life 3 July 1584.2
The Goring family may have been tenants on the manor of that name in Arundel rape, Sussex, as early as Henry VIII's reign. Subsequently they settled at Lancing and in the later fifteenth century a fortunate marriage brought them lands formerly held by the Dawtrey family, including the Burton estate, south of Petworth. There they made their residence, and at the dissolution of the monasteries gained further property in the neighbourhood. Sir William Goring, who represented Sussex in the 1547 Parliament and was a gentleman of Edward VI's privy chamber, was succeeded at Burton in 1554 by his eldest son Henry, but George, the second son, to whom he left in his will only a gold brooch and some clothes, founded a cadet branch at Ovingdean and Lewes. His interest in half the manor of Ovingdean came to him by his marriage.3
At the beginning of the reign the borough of Lewes was part of the ancient honour of Lewes, which was held jointly by four owners, one of them being Goring's wife. It was therefore as a local man that he was returned for Lewes in 1559 and 1563, when his brother Henry was sheriff. In 1584 he aspired to represent the county, but by that time he and his brother had quarrelled with Lord Buckhurst, and Goring failed to gain election. Goring was noted as a 'favourer' of religion and 'learned in the law' in 1564. In 1579 he embarked on a building spree. First Pelham House, Lewes, for £2,000. Next, in 1582 he bought Danny Park from Lord Dacre for £10,000, plus a further £4,000 for a mansion. In 1586 he was negotiating a crown lease of the half hundred of Loxfield and the manor of South Malling. He had also a house in Chelsea. In 1588-9 he was assessed for the Armada loan at £100, the highest rate in Sussex. How he acquired such wealth before obtaining his court of wards post is not known: perhaps it was borrowed in expectation. His opportunities to dip into the till once he became receiver-general were boundless. Already by 1587 there were irregularities in the accounts amounting, on his own admission, to nearly £4,000. By the time of his death, intestate, on 28 Mar. 1594, the deficit was almost £20,000, and still his heir was insisting that Goring had not purchased £40 worth of land while he was in office.4
1. C142/104/79; W. Berry, Co. Genealogies, Suss. (Comber's copy at Chichester), 138.
2. PRO, Assizes, 35, S. E. Circuit, Suss. 2-36; Egerton 2345; SP12/93/2; PRO Index 16774, f. 5.
3. D. G. C. Elwes and C. J. Robinson, Castles, Mansions and Manors of W. Suss. 23, 56, 102n, 111, 112, 266; Suss. Arch. Colls. v. 27; vi. 79; J. Dallaway, W. Suss. ii(2), p. 34; Camden, Britannia (1806), i. 286, 289; Hutchins, Dorset, i. 225; PCC 38 More; VCH Suss. vii. 230.
4. Harl. 474, ff. 81, 90, 92; 703, ff. 18, 19, 67; APC, vii. 128; viii. 166; ix. 37; x. 100, 190; xiii. 242; Cam. Misc. ix(3), p. 10; Suss. Arch. Colls. i. 32; ii. 59; xi. 66; xliv. 16, 20; Lansd. 53, f. 106 seq.; VCH Suss. vii. 1-7, 9; Add. 33084, ff. 8-27; HMC Hatfield, iv. 501; v. 277; xiii. 285, 292, 348, 383, 472, 530; CSP Dom. 1581-90, pp. 374, 430; 1595-7, pp. 69-70; H. E. Bell, Ct. of Wards, 37, 172; J. Hurstfield, Queen's Wards, 208-9.
Noted events in his life were:
• Property, 1541, Woodmancote Manor, Henfield, West Sussex, BN5, GB. 1 John [Fillol]'s son and heir Sir William died in 1527, and under a partition of 1530-1 between his daughters and coheirs Woodmancote passed to Catherine, wife of Sir Edward Seymour, later duke of Somerset (attainted 1552); he conveyed it in 1531 to Richard Bellingham (d. 1550×1552).
George Goring, husband of Richard's widow Mary, was described as lord c. 1560. Mary's son Sir Edward Bellingham (d. 1605) was succeeded by his son and namesake (d. 1637), who was succeeded by his niece or cousin Cecily, wife of Thomas West.
• Title: Member of Parliament for Lewes, 1559.
• Title: Member of Parliament for Lewes, 1563.
• Property, 1572-1579, Balneath Manor, Chailey, Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 4AP, GB. 2 Balneath (or Balneth) formed part of the possessions of St. Pancras Priory at Lewes until the Dissolution. It was perhaps identical with the land which William de Warenne granted to the priory about 1095, being his demesne land 'from Beuehorne (Bevern) Bridge to Cheagele (Chailey) from the east road to the road beside the Bridge of Hamwde', which seems roughly to correspond with its present situation. The tenants of this manor had to carry 600 cartloads of wood yearly to the priory from Homewoodand Balneath Wood.
After the Dissolution Balneath, with the other possessions of the priory, was granted first to Thomas Cromwell in 1538, and later, in 1541,to Anne of Cleves for her life. The reversion of the manor was granted in 1552 to Sir William Goring, who died in 1554. His son Sir Henry obtained possession of it, and Balneath remained in the Goring family without a break until the end of the 19th century, being purchased from them about 1900 by Sir William Grantham, K.C., from whom it descended to his son William Wilson Grantham, esq., V.D., K.C., J.P.
• Property, 1572, Barcombe Manor, Lewes, East Sussex, BN8, GB. 3 The manor continued to be held with Plumpton until the attainder of Nicholas Carew in 1536 and the subsequent grant by the king to Elizabeth widow of Nicholas for life, with remainder to her son Francis. In the next year the site and demesnes of the manor of Barcombe, with fishery in the brook, were leased to Henry Coke for 21 years, but in 1555 Francis Carew was dealing with the manor. In 1572 he conveyed it to George Goring, in whose family it remained until the death of a later George Goring, who by his will, dated 28 Dec. 1727, ordered that it should be sold.
• Property, 1575, Keymer Manor, Hassocks, West Sussex, BN6, GB. 4 The manor of KEYMER, assessed for 14 hides, was held of King Edward the Confessor by Azor, and in 1086 of William de Warenne by William de Watevile. It was probably held shortly afterwards by Ralph de Chesney, who succeeded William de Watevile in many of his lands, and who gave the church of Keymer to Lewes Priory. Subsequently it was retained as a demesne manor by the Warennes, although the first reference to it as such occurs in 1316. It descended with the barony, falling to the share of Edmund Lenthall, and by 1566 half was held by Lord Bergavenny, a quarter by the Duke of Norfolk, one eighth by the Earl of Derby, and the remaining eighth by George Goring of Ovingdean, successor of the Wingfields.
The Bergavenny moiety of Keymer descended with the half of the barony until 1627, when it formed part of the lands set aside for the jointure of Frances, wife of Sir Thomas Nevill, heir apparent of Henry, Lord Bergavenny, and to pay their debts and provide for their younger children. Sir Thomas died in 1628, and in the following year the moiety was sold by Lord Bergavenny and trustees to Sir Richard Michelborne, who had already acquired the Norfolk quarter from Thomas, Earl of Arundel, and his brothers in 1610. The Derby eighth had been sold to George Goring in 1575, and was acquired from his son's trustees in 1618'9619 by Sir Richard [Nevill], who thus became possessed of seveneighths of the manor. Sir Richard died in 1638, and in 1652 his sons William, Abraham, and Francis conveyed the property to Robert Bowyer, who immediately parted with it to Bray Chowne.
• Property, 1576, Iping Manor, Midhurst, West Sussex, GU29, GB. 5 IPING, which was held of the Confessor by Oualet, was not included in the lands given to Earl Roger, but in 1086 was held directly of King William by Eldred (of Winchester). It was rated at 4 hides; there was a mill, a quarry worth 9s. 4d., and extensive woodland; one haw in Chichester belonged to the manor, and 40d. was received from circet, or church-scot. Towards the end of the 12th century the manor was in the hands of Richard Musard, who gave to Lewes Priory 'the hide of Trepeham with croft and meadow' in Iping. In 1212 this gift was confirmed by Richard's son and heir William Musard, who subsequently added 'the land which is called Hooe' in a charter to which his wife Joan and his heir William gave their consent. The manor evidently descended in the family, as in 1330 William Musard died seised of the manor of Iping, then said to be held of Herbert de St. Quintin, whose connexion with it is otherwise unknown; William's son and namesake was 'of Iping' in 1339, in which year Sir Henry Husee of Hastings acknowledged a debt to him of 100 marks. It seems probable that this was for the purchase of the manor, which is next found, in 1370, in the hands of Sir Henry Husee, and in 1390 in those of Ankarette his widow at the time of her death. In 1412 Henry Husee held 2/3 of the manor, the other being dower of his mother Margaret, and he and the Prior of Lewes held jointly ½ knight's fee in Iping in 1428. Henry Lovell, who had married Constance, one of the two daughters and coheirs of Nicholas Husee (d. 1472), in 1499 quitclaimed all right in the manor and advowson to John Goring, whose father John (d. 1495) had probably purchased them some years before, as he was patron of the church in 1483. John's great-grandson George Goring sold in 1576 to John Selwyn of Friston.
• Title: High Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex, 1578–1579.
• Property, 1579, Chithurst Manor, Petersfield, West Sussex, GU31, GB. 6 By 1494 the manor was in the hands of James Bartelott, who in that year bequeathed it to his nephew Thomas Burdeville (son of his sister Elizabeth and John Burdeville). In default of issue to Thomas or his brother Richard it was to revert to the testator's nephew, Thomas Bartelott. Thomas Burdeville conveyed it in 1532 to John Warde and others; but this was presumably in trust for a settlement, as in 1542 Thomas Bartelott sold it to Sir William Goring, whose son George Goring, and his wife Mary, sold it in 1579 to Peter Bettesworth.
• Property, 1582, Cowley Peachey Manor, Hillingdon, London, UB8, GB. 7 By 1362 Cowley Peachey belonged to Hugh Seagrave, whose feoffees were in possession in 1369. Sir Thomas Charlton, who presented to the church in 1427, held the manor in 1429 along with Cowley Hall and lands in Cowley called Ely's. He continued to hold Cowley Hall but by 1431 Cowley Peachey had passed to Robert Warner (d. 1439). Warner was succeeded by his daughter Elizabeth, who married Walter Green. She was in possession in1461 and died as a widow in 1473, leaving as heir her son Robert Green. Robert's widow Cecily married John Acton and held the manor at her death in 1480, when it came to her son Edward Green. He died without heirs in 1493, and his sister Cecily, wife of William Burbage, inherited Cowley. Cecily may have married again, for William Bedyll and Cecily his wife presented to the church in 1509 and 1516. She was succeeded by her son Thomas Burbage, who owned the manor at least from 1522 to 1550. His son Robert lived at Hayes Park, and it is likely that his ancestors since Walter Green had done the same.
Robert settled Cowley Peachey manor on his daughter's marriage with William Goring, who conveyed it to George Goring, who in turn conveyed it to Gregory, Lord Dacre (d. 1594), in 1582. George Goring, probably William's uncle, was also probably the George Goring who bought Hurstpierpoint manor (Sussex) from Dacre on the same day as he granted Cowley to him. The connection between these transactions is not established, but Dacre held Cowley until his death in 1594, and his wife, who held jointly with him and survived him, left it by will to Sir Edward Fenner, whose mother was also a Goring. Fenner, a justice of King's Bench, was buried at Hayes in 1612. His son Edward conveyed Cowley to Richard Franklin about 1615.
• Property, 1593, Danny House, Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex, BN6, GB. 8 Danny, the seat of Sir W. R. Campion, K.C.M.G., stands about 1 mile south-south-east of the parish church, in its own park. The house is of brick with stone dressings, and of E-shaped plan facing east, with later additions at the back. The front as now seen was the result of the remodelling and enlargement of the house by George Goring, whose initials with the date 1593 appear in a ceiling in the north wing. The present north wing and part of the main block adjoining it belong to an earlier 16th-century building, the plan being L-shaped and the walls, above the lowest story, being of timber-framing. Goring reconstructed or encased the upper stories with brick, inserted the baywindows, and refronted the east end of the wing, which he probably shortened at the same time to tally with his new additions. These included the middle porch-wing and the south half of the main block, made 9 ft. longer than the north to accommodate his great hall, of two stories in one, and the south wing. The older part was of four stories, but his new work, made the same height, has only three. The north wing retains the original newel staircase projecting north of it, but Goring's main staircase was probably on a wing at the back or west of the hall and was abolished when the new main staircase was put in the south wing in 1728, when Henry Campion and Barbara (Courthope), to whom the estate had passed in 1724, made fairly extensive alterations; the south side was then given a new facade and additions made to the west. Since then further additions have been made, chiefly to the offices on the west side, and a new main staircase has been inserted in the main block.
The house was the scene of one very important event in modern history. It is recorded on a panel in the great hall as follows:
'In this room a meeting of the Imperial War Cabinet was held on the 13th October 1918 at which the following were present:'97Mr. Lloyd George, Mr. Bonar Law, Mr. A. J. Balfour, Viscount Milner, The Earl of Reading, Mr. W. S. Churchill, Admiral Sir R. Wemyss, General Sir Henry Wilson, Lt.-Col. Sir M. P. A. Hankey, Mr. Philip Kerr. A cable was sent to President Wilson authorising him to proceed with negotiations for an Armistice with Germany.'
The east front of the main block has two baywindows on either side of the porch, the two to the south, lighting the great hall, having four tiers of lights rising two stories in one, with three transoms. Above these are blanks to the top story. The other bays have a window to each of the three stories, divided by a transom: all are of four lights in the width and one light in each splay. The moulded jambs and mullions, &c., are of stone, and there are moulded labels. The bays have gabled heads with moulded copings the kneelers of which are carried on scrolled brackets. In the tympanum of each of the two north bays is a circular niche with a defaced bust. The rebuilt gabled heads of the two south bays have roundels with heads, bad imitations of the others. The main wall between the bays is of brick, with some early-16th-century diaper ornament in blue headers in the north block. The middle (gabled) porch-wing has a round-headed entrance flanked by half-round shafts with moulded square capitals and bases; above these are enriched pedestals to an upper order, which has fluted Ionic shafts, flanking the first-floor window, and a pediment. There are also two half-round shafts of brick in each of the side-walls of the porch, with twolight windows between them.
The inner side of the north wing has two baywindows like the others but without the niches in the gable-heads. The inner face of the south wing also has two bay-windows, with lights taller than those of the north side. The east ends of the two wings are gabled and have bay-windows of two stories with sloping roofs, but otherwise like the others; the third story has a fivelight window.
The north side has three square gabled projections of full height: the easternmost contains the original central newel stair, and the next west may have been formerly a porch-wing, although there are no traces of an entrance. These projections and the main wall between them are lighted by windows of two, three, or four lights at the original floor levels, four stories instead of the three taller stories of the other parts of the house. Most of the windows east of the stair-wing are blocked: others have been restored, but two or three have ancient wooden frames.
The south elevation is of 1728 and is of three bays: the middle bay projects slightly and is flanked by pilasters of rubbed brick with stone capitals. It has five windows to the ground and first floors, the second and fourth of the lower being open down to the floor: the others are sash windows. The faces setting back at the east and west ends have each two windows and a flanking pilaster: beyond the western bay is the modern extension to the dining-room. The front has a panelled parapet and above it are gabled dormers to the second floor. The west side of the house has an early-18th-century gabled wing next the main south wing: the rest of this side appears to be all modern. There are many rain-water pipes and heads to the older walls bearing the initials and date [C/HB 1728].
The east entrance opens into the screens passage, which is paved with 21-inch stone and 5-inch black marble squares set diagonally: north of it is a modern oak staircase: this rises from the same level, but against the front (east) wall there are steps down to the lower ground-floor level of the north wing (3 ft. 6 in.). In the west wall of the stair-hall is a re-set 17th-century carved oak chimney-piece with an overmantel of two bays.
The great hall, south of the entrance passage, has no really ancient features. The plain ceiling is lower than the heads of the eastern bay-windows and is probably an insertion of the 18th century for the creation of another story above the hall. At the north and south ends are stone screens, each with two round-headed openings of Classic style: the stone-work appears to be modern, but probably the southern, opening to the 18th-century staircase, is contemporary with it but refaced later and copied in the north screen. The west fire-place is modern. An ancient iron fire-back has a figure of Neptune driving his sea-horses. The chimney-piece is flanked by white-painted panelling, and two doorways in the west wall have stone pediments with the monogram [symbol - see printed edition]. The main staircase south of the hall is of 1728. It is of oak, rising in half-round winding plan: it has twisted and plain-turned balusters and ramped handrail starting from a spiral above the bottom newel.
The drawing-room, next east, has a modern east fire-place and is lined with painted fielded panelling, which closes the mouth of the northern bay-window. The library, the easternmost room, has some late-16th-century panelling re-set in the north bay-window. The dining-room, the westernmost room, has a modern north fire-place and other fittings. The rooms above in this wing have no noticeable features: the attics have some old chamfered roof-timbers and flush purlins.
The eastern room on the ground floor of the north wing'97now a billiard-room lighted by east and south bay windows'97has a 16th-century north fire-place of stone with carved tapering pilasters with enriched Ionic caps and, above them, shields now whitened but formerly coloured. Some slight tricking shows in one of them. The western room also has a west fire-place of stone with shallow sunk carving of foliage and roundels, and a moulded surround. A passage-way has been cut off the north side of this room, and off this, in the projecting north bay, is the original winding staircase, which has oak-board treads and risers up to half-way between the first and second floors, whence it is continued in a straight flight with steps of solid oak balks. The projection next west, possibly once an entrance-porch, is now fitted as a lavatory. The larder and passage, west of this, have two heavy chamfered ceiling-beams and large square joists which are relics of the earlier 16th-century building, and the third northern projection is open to the larder. On the first floor over the larder, &c., are other heavy beams and joists.
There are the remains here of the ornamental plaster ceilings of the late 16th century. On the first floor a corridor against the north wall next to the western bedroom has part of a ribbed pattern of squares and curves, with foliage pendants, bosses, and fleurs de lis; there are also roundels, one with a lion rampant, another with a cock, a third with a lion's mask, and one rectangular panel with the date 1593; this probably continued throughout the whole wing originally, and there is strap and jewel ornament in the soffits of the two windows of the passage. The room and passage above this part has a contemporary ribbed ceiling right across from north to south, in the form of an elliptical barrel-vault: the design is different, being a series of star-shaped and cross patterns, but the pendants and bosses are much the same except that there are sprigs of a kind of marigold flower instead of the fleurs-de-lis of the lower ceiling. In two of the panels are the initials G/GM. The eastern room retains the barrel-vaulted ceiling, but the pattern has been wiped out, and there is a suggestion that this part was a single long room, serving as a chapel. The ceiling of the newel staircase also has a segmental barrel-vault above an enriched entablature, and with a star pattern. In the north and south tympana of the vault are lions (rampant) and lions' masks. The small rectangular ceiling above the short straight flight, also ribbed, has five roundels, the central with a head and the words divs Augustus, the other four with an eagle displayed, a grotesque mask, a cock (and a pillar?), and a square flower pattern respectively.
The east bedroom on the first floor has an elaborate north chimney-piece of oak dated 15[inverted 7]1 (presumably 1571). The cupboard next east of it, in a blocked window, is fitted with doors carved with processional scenes of kings and soldiers with pennons, &c., and four shields of arms: (1) two leopards; (2) a dragon's (?) head razed; (3) a lion passant; (4) three wheatsheaves. The room also has a dado of panelling of the same period.
In the western bedroom is a contemporary carved and inlaid oak bedstead with the inscription:
Whan Thov; Takes Thi; Rast Think; On Good For; Al Thov; Haste
The room above, with the enriched ceiling, also has its walls lined with Elizabethan panelling, with raised mouldings, fluted pilasters with Ionic caps, and fluted frieze. The partition between the bedroom and the north passage does not reach the ceiling, but that between the west and east rooms is full height and shows old framing. The east room has some similar panelling in the southern bay-window, and on the north side is a recessed fire-place flanked by fluted pilasters and with a moulded cornice.
George married someone Mary Everard, daughter of William Everard and Joan Ernle, before 1560. (Mary Everard died about 1602 9.)