Richard of England 1st Earl of Cornwall, Holy Roman Emperor 1
- Born: 5 Jan 1209, Winchester Castle, Castle Avenue, Winchester, Hampshire, SO23 8PJ, GB 3
- Marriage (1): Isabel Marshal 13 or 30 Mar 1231 in Fawley, Buckinghamshire, GB 1 2
- Marriage (2): Sancie de Provence on 23 Nov 1243 in Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yard, Westminster, London, SW1P 3PA, GB 3
- Marriage (3): Beatrix van Valkenburg on 16 Jun 1269 in Stiftskirche St. Martin und St. Maria, Kaiserslautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, 67655, DE
- Partnership (4): Joan
- Marriage (5): Unknown
- Died: 2 Apr 1272, Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, HP4 2AG, GB aged 63 3
- BuriedMale: 13 Apr 1272, Hailes Abbey, Hailes, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL54 5PB, GB
RICHARD, son of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (Winchester Castle 5 Jan 1209-Berkhamstead Castle, Herts 2 Apr 1272, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire). The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the birth in 1209 of "Ricardus secundus filius regis". Matthew Paris records that "Isabel Anglorum regina" gave birth in 1208 to "Johanni regi filium legitimum...Ricardum". He was designated Comte de Ponthieu before 14 Aug 1225. Created Earl of Cornwall 30 May 1227. In 1236, he was suggested as intermediary to negotiate an Anglo/imperial alliance proposed by Emperor Friedrich II but did not take up the post. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "Ricardus comes Cornubiĉ frater Henrici regis Angliĉ" went to Jerusalem in . Implementing a crusading vow taken in 1236, Richard arrived at Acre in Palestine 11 Oct 1240, re-established some order in the kingdom of Jerusalem, and left in May 1241. He renounced the county of Ponthieu in Dec 1243. Richard was one of the proposed candidates to replace Heinrich Raspe as anti-king of Germany in 1247, and in 1250 may have been offered the Sicilian crown by Pope Innocent IV. According to Matthew Paris, he refused the kingdom of Sicily on the Pope's terms, after which the Pope offered it to King Henry who accepted it on behalf of his son Edmund. In Dec 1256, Richard was offered the German crown by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz to whom promises of payment of 8,000 marks had each been made, supported by Ludwig II Duke of Bavaria, who was betrothed to the daughter of King Henry III with a dowry of 12,000 marks, and subsequently by Otakar II King of Bohemia. Richard accepted the offer before the English parliament, and sailed for Germany. The offer was confirmed by a limited election outside Frankfurt 13 Jan 1257, entry into the city being barred by Arnold Archbishop of Trier. He was crowned RICHARD King of Germany on 17 May 1257 at Aachen Cathedral with his wife. Although his rival Alfonso X King of Castile had initially enjoyed the support of France and the Pope, King Henry III's peaceful settlement with Louis IX King of France in Jan 1257 provided the basis for Pope Alexander IV to modify his own position and on 30 Apr 1259 he secretly invited Richard to Rome for his imperial coronation, although Richard was unable to leave England because of the deteriorating relations with the barons. He was elected Roman senator in Apr 1261, with the support particularly of cardinals John of Toledo and Ottobono Fieschi. Pope Urban IV was less sympathetic to his cause, obtaining a more powerful military ally to protect his position in Italy in Charles Comte d'Anjou. The dispute was unresolved by the Papal Bull Qui Clum dated 27 Aug 1263 which found that both candidates for the German throne were king-elect. However, in 1266 Pope Clement IV appears to have favoured Richard's candidacy over a possible election of Konradin. After the latter's execution in 1268, Friedrich von Meissen emerged as a new possible candidate for the German throne and Richard renewed his efforts to increase his authority in Germany, in particular by his third marriage to a relative of Engelbert Archbishop of Köln. Richard suffered an apoplectic stroke in [Oct] 1271 which paralysed his left side and affected the balance of his mind. The Annales Halesiensibus record the death "1272 Berhamstede IV Non Apr" of "rex Ricardus Alemanie" and his burial "apud Heles". The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Apr apud Berhamstede"  of "Ricardus Alemannia rex" and his burial "apud monasterium de Hayles" which he had founded. A writ dated 5 Apr "56 Hen III", after the death of "Richard king of Almain", records "Sir Edmund his son, aged 22 on the day of St Stephen last, is his heir" .
m firstly (Fawley, Buckinghamshire 13 or 30 Mar 1231) as her second husband, ISABEL Marshal, widow of GILBERT de Clare Earl of Hertford and Gloucester , daughter of WILLIAM Marshal Earl of Pembroke & his wife Isabella de Clare (Pembroke Castle 9 Oct 1200-Berkhamstead Castle, Hertfordshire 15 or 17 Jan 1240, bur Beaulieu Abbey, Hampshire). The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage "III Kal Apr
apud Falle juxta Merlawe" in 1231 of "Ysabel comitissa Gloucestriĉ" and "Ricardo comiti Cornubiĉ, fratri Henrici regis Angliĉ". Her (second) marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who names her "Ysabellam comitissam Gloverniĉ" sister of William Marshall Earl of Pembroke, specifying that the marriage took place in April. The Annales Cambriĉ record the marriage in 1231 of "Ricardus comes Cornubiĉ" and "Isabellam cometissam Gloucestriĉ". The Annales Londonienses record the marriage in 1231 of "Ricardus frater regis" and "Isabellam comitissam Gloverniĉ, relictam Gileberti de Clare". The Annales Londonienses record the death in 1240 of "comitissa Gloverniĉ uxor comitis Ricardi" in childbirth. The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death "XVI Kal Feb
apud Berkhamstede"in 1239 of "Isabella comitissa Gloucestriĉ et Hertfordiĉ, Cornubiĉ et Pictaviĉ" and her burial "apud Bellum Locum Cisterciensis ordinis". Matthew Paris records that she died of jaundice contracted in childbirth .
m secondly (Contract 17 Jul 1242, Westminster Abbey 23 Nov 1243) SANCHA de Provence, daughter of RAYMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence & his wife Béatrice de Savoie (Aix-en-Provence -Berkhamstead Castle, Buckinghamshire 5 or 9 Nov 1261, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire). "Petrus de Sabaudia" acted as proxy for the marriage of "Richardo comite Cornubie" and "Sanccie filie
Raimundi Berengarii comitis provincie", recorded in a charter dated 17 Jul 1242. The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "die Sanctĉ Ciciliĉ" in 1243 of "Ricardus frater regis" and "Beatrix uxor comitis Provinciĉ
filiam suam Cyntiam". The marriage is recorded and dated by Matthew Paris, who confirms the bride´s parentage. She was crowned Queen of Germany with her husband 17 May 1257 at Aachen Cathedral. The Annales Halesiensibus record the death "1261 V Id Nov
apud Berhamstede" of "Sanchia regina Alemannie" and her burial "apud Heiles". The Annals of Osney record the death "die Mercurii proximo ante festum beati Martini apud Berchamstede" in 1261 of "Schenchia regina Alemanniĉ, soror Elianorĉ reginĉ Angliĉ" and her burial "ad domum de Hayles" .
m thirdly (Kaiserslauten Stiftskirche 16 Jun 1269) BEATRIX [van Valkenburg], daughter of [DIRK [II] Heer van Valkenburg & his first wife Bertha van Limburg] (-17 Oct 1277, bur Oxford, church of the Franciscan Friars Minor). The Annales Halesiensibus record the marriage in 1267 of "rex Riccardus Alemannie" and "Beatricem cuius avunculus fuit archiepiscopus Colonie". The same relationship is hinted by the charter dated 13 Sep 1271 in which "Richardus
romanorum rex" refers to "E. Coloniensi archiepiscopi" as "affinis nostri". The primary source which confirms her parentage more precisely has not yet been identified, although the reference to "Falkestan" (presumably in error for Valkenburg/Falkenburg) in the record of her death quoted below suggests that she must have been the daughter of Dietrich [II] von Valkenburg if Engelbert Archbishop of Köln was her uncle. If this is correct, the date of her marriage suggests that she was the daughter of Dietrich [II]´s first wife, but this is not without doubt as other primary sources show marriages celebrated when the bride was aged 12 at that time. This marriage was arranged to bolster Richard's support in Germany, through the bride's influential uncle Engelbert Archbishop of Köln. The Annals of Osney record the death "in vigilia Sancti Lucĉ Evangelistĉ"in 1277 of "Beatrix de Falkestan, regina Alemanniĉ, uxor regis Ricardi"and her burial "in ecclesia fratrum Minorum Oxoniĉ" .
Mistress (1): JEANNE de Valletort, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her parentage and relationship with Earl Richard has not yet been identified.
Mistress (2): ---. The name of Earl Richard´s second mistress is not known.
Earl Richard & his first wife had four children: John, Isabella, Henry and Nicholas.
Earl Richard & his second wife had [four] children: a daughter, Richard, Edmund and [Richard].
Earl Richard had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): Richard.
Earl Richard had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2): Walter
Richard, Count of Poitou by 18 Aug 1225 (renounced c Dec 1243), 1st Earl of Cornwall, so styled from 21 Aug 1227 and King of the Romans (ie. heir presumptive to the Holy Roman Empire), so elected at Frankfurt 13 Jan 1256/7 and crowned at Aachen 17 May 1257 but soon ejected and returned to England, three of the Electors apparently having thrown him over because his monetary inducements to them were too small, PC (1253); Constable of Wallingford Castle 1216; knighted Feb 1224/5 and granted by his brother Henry III 13 Feb 1224/5 the County of Cornwall during the King's pleasure, following which he was presumably invested as Earl of that county; Lt of Guienne 1226-7; Ambassador to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II 1237 and Popes Innocent IV and Alexander IV 1250 and 1259 respectively; went on Crusade 1240-41; Co- or sole Regent during his brother Henry III's campaigns in Gascony 1253-54, fought with his brother Henry III against Simon de Montfort's barons at Battle of Lewes 1264, where he was captured; married 1st 30 March 1230/1 Isabel, 3rd daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and widow of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and had three sons (all died young or sp); married 2nd 22 Nov 1243 Sancha, sister of his brother Henry III's wife Eleanor and 3rd daughter and coheir of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence, and by her had two or three sons (also died young or sp, including the 2nd and last Earl of Cornwall); married 3rd 16 June 1269 Beatrice, 2nd daughter of Walram de Fauquemont (or Valkenberg, near Mastricht), Seigneur de Montjoie and brother of Engelbert Archbishop of Cologne, and died 2 April 1272, leaving by Jeanne de Valletort, an illegitimate son.
Ruled: 1257-1272 (Holy Roman Emperor-symbolic only).
Manorial Estate, 1256-1272, Holdgate Manor, Much Wenlock, Shropshire, TF13, GB. 4 Called 'Stantune' in 1086, (fn. 46) HOLDGATE had presumably been part of the greater 'Stantune' that was restored to the church of Wenlock in 901 by Aethelraed and Aethelflaed. In their time 'Stantune' seems also to have included Stanton Long. (fn. 47) By 1066 the 'Stantune' that became Holdgate had again ceased to belong to the church of Wenlock and consisted of five estates held freely by Ketil (Chetel), Genust, Alweard (Aelward), Dunning, and Aelfgifu (Elueua). By 1086 Helgot held them of Roger of Montgomery, earl of Shrewsbury (the tenant in chief) as two estates. (fn. 48) He was called Helgot of 'Reisolent', (fn. 49) perhaps from Résenlieu (Orne) in or near Roger's vicomté of the Hiémois, and was the eponymous lord who gave his name to his chief manor and to the barony centred on it. Honor and manor descended together. (fn. 50) Helgot's son Herbert of Clee, (fn. 51) nephew of Geoffrey of Clee ('de Clive'), bishop of Hereford, (fn. 52) succeeded before 1116 (fn. 53) and was living in 1121. The family is presumed to have held the manor in chief after Earl Robert's forfeiture in 1102. Herbert's son Herbert (fn. 54) of Castle Holdgate ('de castello Holgot') (fn. 55) was chief lord in 1166 (fn. 56) and died in 1189 or 1190. (fn. 57) His widow died childless in 1192 or 1193. (fn. 58) By 1194 Ralph of Arden held the manor, (fn. 59) apparently in right of his wife Agnes, daughter and heir of Robert de la Mare (perhaps a nephew of Herbert of Castle Holdgate) (fn. 60) and widow of Robert Mauduit of Warminster (Wilts.). (fn. 61) Between 1197 and 1199 Ralph was succeeded as lord by Agnes's son Thomas Mauduit. (fn. 62) In 1244, after Thomas's death, Holdgate passed to his son William (fn. 63) who alienated it in 1256 to Richard, earl of Cornwall and king of the Romans (d. 1272). (fn. 64) Richard's son Earl Edmund succeeded as lord, (fn. 65) although the Templars of Lydley had held the manor of the earl of Cornwall in fee farm since 1263. (fn. 66) The Templars' tenure lasted until some time between 1276 (fn. 67) and c. 1284. (fn. 68) Between c. 1284 and 1292 Earl Edmund's feudal tenant of Holdgate, Robert Burnell, bishop of Bath and Wells, acquired the chief lordship, (fn. 69)
46. V.C.H. Salop. i. 337.
47. Below, Stanton Long, manors.
48. V.C.H. Salop. i. 337.
49. P.R.O., SP 16/124, f. 165 (17th-cent. transcript of an undated medieval doc.).
50. P.N. Salop. (E.P.N.S.), i. 155-6; I. J. Sanders, Eng. Baronies (1960), 28-9.
51. Eyton, iv. 53, 75.
52. P.R.O., SP 16/124, f. 165.
53. Reg. Regum Anglo-Norm. ii, no. 1051.
54. Cartulary of Shrews. Abbey, ed. U. Rees (1975), i, pp. 2, 36.
55. Cartulary of Haughmond Abbey, ed. U. Rees (1985), p. 212.
56. Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), i. 275.
57. Pipe R. 1190 (P.R.S. N.S. i), 126.
58. Ibid. 1193 (P.R.S. N.S. iii), 90; Eyton, iii. 82; iv. 57; vi. 190-1.
59. Pipe R. 1194 (P.R.S. N.S. v), 143.
60. Eyton, iv. 57-8.
61. Cart. Haughmond, pp. 224-5.
62. Pipe R. 1197 (P.R.S. N.S. viii), 158; 1199 (ibid. x), 78; Eyton, iv. 59.
63. Ex. e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), i. 418.
64. P.R.O., E 36/57, ff. 26v.-27; D.N.B.
65. Feud. Aids, iv. 224.
66. P.R.O., E 36/57, f. 45 and v.
67. Eyton, iv. 68.
68. Feud. Aids, iv. 224.
69. Ibid. 224, 268; Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, p. 50.
Manorial Estate, 1272, Shalden Manor, Shalden, Alton, Hampshire, GB. 5 The manor of SHALDEN was held at the time of the Domesday Survey by William Mauduit; formerly it had been held by four freemen of King Edward the Confessor as an alod. The overlordship of the manor passed to the descendants of William Mauduit in the same way as the manor of Hartley Mauduit, of which Shalden was held.
The manor was apparently held by the Mauduits of Hartley Mauduit in demesne until near the end of the 12th century, when William Mauduit of Hanslope gave this manor to his brother Robert Mauduit of Warminster to be held of William and his heirs for the service of half a knight's fee. Robert Mauduit died in 1191, and his son and successor Thomas was holding the manor in 1235-6. He died in 1244, and was succeeded by his son William. Thomas the successor of William left a son and heir Warin, a minor, whose custody was assigned by Henry III to his brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall. From Warin some interest in the manor seems to have passed on his death in 1299-1300 to his son Thomas, for he granted a virgate of land at Shalden to Walter Stoner his freeman for his homage and services. Before this time, however, the manor seems to have passed to Richard, Earl of Cornwall, for he obtained from Henry III a grant of free warren there, and on his death in 1272 the manor descended to his son Edmund.
Inquisition, 5 Apr 1272. 6 808. Richard king of Almain.
Mandate from the king's escheator to the subescheator in cos. Oxford and Berks, reciting writ dated 5 April, 56 Hen. III.
Sir Edmund, his son, aged 22 on the day of St. Stephen last, is his heir.
Berks. Extent, Friday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Walingford borough, with the advowsons of the churches of All Saints, St. Peter and St. Michael, held of the king of England in chief, service unspecified.
Berks. Extent, Thursday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Arewelle manor with the advowson (extent given), held of the bishop of Winchester in chief by 1 knight's fee, rendering nothing except scutage when it runs, and then to the bishop.
Oxford. Extent, Friday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Bensindon manor, with 4 ½ hundreds and the advowson of the church of Henele which pertain to the said manor, held in chief of the gift of the king of England. Walingford castle with the honour, with 2 mills, held of the king of England by service of 3 knights, and 120 ½ knights' fees pertain to the said castle and honour.
Oxford. Extent, Tuesday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III.
Erdinton manor (extent given), held of the bishop of Lincoln in chief by service of 2 knights, but he owed nothing to him but scutage when it runs.
Esthalle hamlet (extent given), held of the king of England by service of ½ knight's fee; and Estallingeleye, a hamlet of Esthalle, was held by the abbot of Butlisden of the said king of Almain for ½ knight's fee. Oxford. Extent, The eve of Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III.
Watlington manor (extent given), held of the king of England in chief by service of 1 knight and scutage when it runs.
Witham, Croultone, and Losmere were held of the said king of Almain by service of 2 knights.
Oxford. Extent, Monday, the morrow of Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Henele manor with the advowson of the church (extent given), held of the king of England in chief by free marriage. Endorsed, This is the Inquisition made of the honour of Walery and of the borough of Walingforth, and of the 4 ½ hundreds of Bunsinton and Henele.
Oxford. Extent, Wednesday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III.
Beckele manor with the advowson (extent given), held, with Ambresdone, Blakethurne alias Blakehurne, and Willarston, by barony of the honour of St. Valery.
Orton (extent given).
Ambredone manor and Blakehurne, with the advowson of Ambredone church (extent given).
Willarston manor, with the advowson of Mixebury church (extent given).
Combe. 1 knight's fee, held by Simon de Sancto Licio.
Norton. 7 knights' fees, held by William le Brun and Robert de Fretevelle.
Horspahe, held by the Templars at fee farm, rendering 9l. yearly.
Norhoseneye manor, of the honour of St. Valery, 59s. 4d. rent of assize.
Buckingham. Inq. and Extent, Thursday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Risseberg manor with the park (extent given), held of the king in chief by service of 1 knight's fee.
Buckingham. Inq. and Extent Friday before Palm Sunday, 56 Hen. III. Scipinham alias Scpinpinham manor with the park and the advowson of the chapel (extent given), held of the abbot of Westminster and others.
Mandate, &c. to the subescheator in cos. Essex and Hertford, reciting writ dated 5 April, 56 Hen. III.
Essex. Extent and Inq. Friday before St. Mark, 56 Hen. III. Neuport manor (extent given), including 2 watermills and a fishpond, held of the king in chief, service unknown. The dean of St. Martin le Grand (Magnus), London, has always the church to his own uses, but the advowson pertains to the king.
Hertford. Inq. and extent, 56 Hen. III. Bercam [sted] borough (extent given), held, with Hemelhamsted, of the king in chief by knight's service; and 6 knights' fees are held in the county of the honour of Bercam [sted]. Hemelhamsted with the advowson (extent given).
C. Hen. III. File 42. (1.)
Richard married Isabel Marshal, daughter of William Marshal 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare Countess of Pembroke, 13 or 30 Mar 1231 in Fawley, Buckinghamshire, GB.1 2 (Isabel Marshal was born on 9 Oct 1200 in Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Dyfed, Wales, SA71, GB, died 15 Jan 1240 or 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, HP4 2AG, GB 2 7 and was buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Brockenhurst, Hampshire, SO42, GB.)
Richard next married Sancie de Provence, daughter of Raymond Bérenger IV de Provence Comte de Provence et de Forcalquier and Béatrice de Savoie, on 23 Nov 1243 in Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yard, Westminster, London, SW1P 3PA, GB.3 (Sancie de Provence was born about 1225 in Aix-en-Provence, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, FR,8 died on 9 Nov 1261 in Berkhamsted Castle, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, HP4 2AG, GB 8 and was buried in Hailes Abbey, Hailes, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL54 5PB, GB 8.)
Richard next married Beatrix van Valkenburg on 16 Jun 1269 in Stiftskirche St. Martin und St. Maria, Kaiserslautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, 67655, DE. (Beatrix van Valkenburg died on 17 Oct 1277 and was buried in Oxford Greyfriars, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1, GB.)
Richard had a relationship with Joan.
Richard next married.