Aubrey [III] de Vere 1st Earl of Oxford 2 3 4 5
- Born: Abt 1110 1 2 5
- Marriage (1): Béatrice de Bourbourg in 1139 1
- Marriage (2): Eupheme between 1146 and 1152 1
- Marriage (3): Agnes de Essex about 1162-1163 1
- Died: 26 Dec 1194 aged about 84 1 2
- BuriedMale: Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Colchester, Essex, CO6, GB 1
AUBREY [III] (-26 Dec 1194, bur Colne Priory). The Historia Comitum Ghisnensium records that he succeeded his wife's grandfather as Comte de Guines in 1139 but appointed "Arnoldum de Hammis Comestorum appellatum filium Roberti" as his bailly in Guines. He confirmed grants in England as "Count Aubrey" from [1140/41]. Empress Matilda installed him as Master Chamberlain of England and created him Earl of Oxford in . The Historia Comitum Ghisnensium records the separation of "Albertus Aper et Beatrix", after which he ceased to be Comte de Guines. The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the death of "Albericus de Ver" at the end of the text which records events in 1194.
m firstly (1139, divorced 1146) as her first husband, BEATRICE de Bourbourg, daughter of HENRI Châtelain of Bourbourg & his first wife Sibylle [Rose] de Guines (after 1120-, bur Abbey of La Capelle). The Historia Comitum Ghisnensium names "Beatricem" as the only daughter of "castellano Broburgensi Henrico" & his wife Sibylle/Rose, and her marriage in England to "Alberto Apro". She married secondly Baudouin Seigneur d'Ardres.
m secondly ([1146/52]) EUPHEME de Cauntelo, daughter of WILLIAM [I] de Cauntelo & his wife --- (-[1153/54], bur Colne Priory). "Eufemia comitissa" donated property to Colne priory, with the consent of "comitis Alberici mariti mei", by charter dated to the reign of King Stephen, witnessed by "comite Alberico, Gilberto de Veer…".
m thirdly ([1162/63]) AGNES de Essex, daughter of HENRY de Essex, Lord of Rayleigh and Haughley & his wife Cicely --- ([1151/52]-after 1206, bur Colne Priory). Earl Aubrey tried to repudiate his third wife within a year but in [1171/72] Alexander III King of Scotland directed the Bishop of London to order Earl Aubrey to take her back.
Earl Aubrey & his third wife had five children: Aubrey, Ralph, Robert, Henry and Alice.
Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, so created 1142 by the Empress Matilda and recognised as such by Stephen I (c1152-53); Master Chamberlain of England, as which inherited from father; married 1st c1139 (divorced by 1146) Beatrice, gdau of Manasses, Count of Guisnes, Northern France, whom Aubrey inherited in that fief late 1139 on doing homage to his overlord Thierry, Count of Flanders (though he was obliged to surrender it on his divorce); married 2nd by 1152 Eufeme (dspm (certainly and dsp probably 1153 or 1154), dau of William de Cauntelo; married 3rd 1162 or 1163 Agnes, dau of Henry de Essex, feudal Lord of Rayleigh and Haughley.
Oxford, Earldom of: This title, held originally by the de Veres from 1142 to 1702/3, was not the earliest post-Conquest earldom creation. But by Charles I's reign it had been held in unbroken male succession for so long, and the Wars of the Roses together with the Tudor's use of attainder to cut down overmighty subjects had so depleted the other great medieval families, that Chief Justic Crew could in 1626 deliver his famous rhetorical question with some cogency. ["This great honour, this high and noble dignity hath continued ever since in the remarkable surname of de Vere, by so many ages, descents and generations, as no other kingdom can produce such a peer in one and the self same name and title. I find in all this length of time, but two attainders of this noble family, and those in stormy and tempestuous times, when the government was unsettled, and the kingdom in competition. I have laboured to make a covenant with myself, that affection may not press upon judgement, for I suppose there is not many that hath any apprehension of gentry or nobleness, but his affection stands to the continuance of so noble a name and house, and would take hold of a twig or a twine thread to uphold it. And yet, time hath its revolutions; there must be a period and an end to all things temporal--finis rerum--and end of names and dignities and whatever is terrene, and why not de Vere? For where is Bohun? Where is Mowbray? Where is Mortimer? Nay, which is more and most of all, where is Plantagent? They are entombed in the urns and sepulchres of mortality! And yet let the name and dignity of de Vere stand so long as it pleaseth God."]
Aubrey de Vere's choice of Oxford as the name of his title in 1142 was somewhat arbitrary, however. The Empress Maud had conferred on him an Earldom of Cambridgeshire, together with the third penny of certain revenues from the count for the upkeep of the dignity, which at that time was a necessary concomitant of earldoms. But if Cambridgeshire were in the hands of the King of Scots [David I], which ultimately proved to be the case, and the Empress could not effect and exchange, Aubrey was to take his pick of title from the Earldoms of Berkshire, Dorsetshire or Wiltshire, besides Oxford (or Oxfordshire--there was little distinction between a county name and county town name at this period where earldoms were concerned). Aubrey only seems to have chosen Oxford(shire) because it was the least remote from his own principal land holdings in Essex--which is to say, not close at all, particularly given 12th century communications.
[Burke's Peerage, Earldom of Oxford, p. 2178]
EARLDOM OF OXFORD (I) 1142
AUBREY DE VERE III, Hereditary Master Chamberlain of England, 1st son and heir, born probably circa 1110. Before 1136 he was given land at Hintlesham, Suffolk, and elsewhere by Alan son of Ralph and his mother Agnes, the grant being confirmed by Henry I and Count Stephen of Brittany as Lord of Richmond. Stephen's successor, Alan, Earl of Richmond, gave Aubrey and his heirs the lordship of Spains Hall in Finchingfield, Essex. In or shortly before 1139 the Count and Countess of Guisnes selected him as husband for their granddaughter and heiress, and he married Beatrice in England. On the death of her grandfather, Count Manasses, at the end of 1139, Aubrey hastened to Guisnes and, after doing homage to Thierry, Count of Flanders, became Count of Guisnes; and returning to England, be obtained from King Stephen his wife's English inheritance, i.e. a part of the barony of Folkestone. He remained in England, and in 1140 or early in 1141, as Count Aubrey, be confirmed his father's gifts to Hatfield; and Ording, Abbot of St. Edmunds, granted to him as Count of Guisnes the fees and service of his uncle Roger de Vere and of Alan FitzFrodon, and 100 shillings per annum. In May 1141 Aubrey succeeded his father, and he continued to reside chiefly in England. From Stephen he probably obtained a charter confirming him in all his father's holdings; after which he turned to the Empress Maud, who gave him a general charter of confirmation, in particular of the office of Master Chamberlain. In 1142 he joined the plot of his brother-in-law, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st Earl of Essex, against Stephen, and in July 1142 the Empress granted him a charter, as Earl or Count Aubrey, by which she conceded that he should be Earl of Cambridgeshire, with the third penny, unless that county were held by the King of Scots; in which case, if she could not obtain it by exchange, Aubrey should be Earl Of Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, or Dorsetshire at his option. She also confirmed the abovementioned charters and granted him inter alia all the land of William d'Avranches with the inheritance which he claimed jure uxoris and the tower and castle of Colchester. Evidently the King of Scots regarded Cambridge as an appanage of his Earldom of Huntingdon, for Aubrey took the title of EARL OF OXFORD, and so styled himself in a charter granted to Colne Priory for the soul of his father, probably soon afterwards and certainly not later than 1147. In 1143 Stephen crushed the plot against him by arresting Earls Geoffrey and Aubrey at St. Albans; and Aubrey had to surrender Canfield Castle to regain his freedom. In that year he is styled "Comes Albericus" in 3 documents relating to Hatfield Priory. Meanwhile Aubrey refused to return to his wife; and finally her father, the Constable of Bourbourg, arranged a divorce, with the consent of Aubrey, who thus ceased to be Count of Guisnes, within the years 1144-46. Evidently Stephen did not recognise his Earldom, for in 1150 Aubrey attested a royal charter at Winchester without the style of comes. A rapprochement with Stephen was probably connected with Aubrey's 2nd marriage, for the King and Queen gave the bride the manor of Ickleton (Cambs) in free marriage; and on 3 May 1152 Queen Maud died at the Earl's castle of Hedingham. In the winter of 1152-53 he was with Stephen, who now appears to have recognised him as Earl, for at the siege of Wallingford he attested a royal charter as Earl Aubrey, and on 6 November 1153 at Westminster he attested the treaty between Stephen and Henry with the same Style. After the accession of Henry II he paid 500 marks for having the chamberlainship which his father held; and early in 1156 (2-10 January) the King granted him as Earl Aubrey the third penny of the pleas of Oxfordshire in order that he might be Earl thereof. As Earl Aubrey he attested royal charters at Newcastle and Colchester in 1158 and at Le Mans probably about Christmas 1160; but after 1160 his name does not appear as a witness to royal charters for some 16 years. At the inquest of 1166 his return showed that 30 tenants held between them 29 fees under Aubrey. From about 1176 his name again appears as a witness to charters. In 1184 or 1185 he obtained the wardship of Isabel, daughter and heir of Walter de Bolebec. He was present at the Coronation of Richard I on 3 September 1189; and in 1194 he was called on to pay £30 2s. 6d. towards the King's ransom. Aubrey probably founded the priories of Ickleton and Castle Hedingharn. He confirrned his father's foundation of Hatfield and gift to Colchester, and his mother's grant to St. Osyth; and he made gifts to St. Edmund and very many benefactions to Colne. He also confirmed a gift to Clerkenwell by Maud de Ros, daughter of Richard de Canville.
He married, 1stly, in or before 1139, Beatrice (born after 1120), daughter of Henry, Constable of Bourbourg, by his 1st wlfe Sibyl (usually called Rose), daughter and in her issue sole heir of Manasses, COUNT OF GUISNES, by Emma, daughter and coheir of William, vicomte of Arques and Lord of Folkestone, which marriage was dissolved in or before 1146, and Beatrice married, 2ndly, Baldwin, Lord of Ardres, but died s.p., a few days later, and was buried in the Abbey of La Capelle. Aubrey m., 2ndly, in or before 1152, Eufeme, said to be daughter of William DE CAUNTELO. She died s.p.m., almost certainly s.p., in 1153 or 1154, and was buried at Colne. He married, 3rdly, in 1162 or 1163, Agnes, daughter of Henry DE ESSEX, Lord of Rayleigh and Haughley, by his wife Cicely. This child, who was born in 1151 or 1152, the Earl tried to repudiate within a year; but she appealed from the Bishop of London's court to Rome, and in 1171 or 1172 Alexander III directed the Bishop to order him to take his wife back. She was living with him in 1191, and survived her husband. Aubrey died 26 December 1194, and was buried at Colne. Agnes was buried by his side.
[CP X:199-207, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)] 1
Aubrey married Béatrice de Bourbourg in 1139.1 (Béatrice de Bourbourg was born after 1120 1 and died in 1146 1.)
Aubrey next married Eupheme between 1146 and 1152.1 (Eupheme died about 1153-1154 1 and was buried in Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Colchester, Essex, CO6, GB 1.)
Aubrey next married Agnes de Essex, daughter of Henry de Essex and Cecily, about 1162-1163.1 (Agnes de Essex was born about 1151-1152,1 died after 1206 1 and was buried in Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Colchester, Essex, CO6, GB 1.)